foresight practices have recently grown in all fields of science.moreover,studies in which the enormous need have existed to design desired futures in natural disaster management have increased as well.in this paper,the authors try to elaborate the relations between ‘disaster management’,‘risk management’,and ‘disaster risk management’ in foresight philosophies and fundamental concepts.in this regard,different information has been gathered and analyzed.these include literature review in disaster management,foresight,and related fields,as well as evidences of foresight and disaster risk management projects.in addition,global statistical data related to natural disasters have been analyzed.reviewing global trends of natural disasters reveal that disaster impacts are dramatically increasing.the uncertainties associated with future disasters have grown too.this will certainly surprise decision-makers in future disasters.furthermore,the key stakeholders,who could apply the foresight methods in managing natural disasters,are national and international policy-makers.they will have faced with a systematic failure in case of inability to follow a reliable long-term planning.to resolve this problem,there is a need for comprehensive,in-depth review of fundamental concepts of foresight being specifically applied in managing disasters considering the concept of the systematic approach to disaster risk management and key concepts of foresight will respectively show the importance of foresight in avoiding ‘systematic failures’ in case natural disasters occur.‘foresight studies’ are not common in ‘disaster management’ studies,therefore,the information collected and analyzed in this paper is based on theoretical and fundamental concepts of two fields of studies including ‘disaster management’ and ‘foresight’,as well as available resources of the practical foresight studies in disaster managing.to improve the insights of the related decision-makers,the common areas,and the key differences between the ‘disaster management’ approach and foresight are compared.moreover,the related viewpoints are also discussed after analyzing the basic concepts which can be viewed through foresight.the results reveal that there are significant conceptual similarities and differences in these two fields of studies.these differences,in some cases,create a simplistic point of view to ‘foresight’ in planning for disaster prevention.thus,limited foresight methods have been used in disaster management so far.to avoid this problem,the conceptual relationships among the foresight and disaster management are outlined.the position of foresight in the improvement of disaster management cycle has been identified as well.disaster management tools are proposed to promote the application of foresight in disaster management.© 2017 elsevier ltd
in this paper,an uncertain integrated model for simultaneously locating temporary health centers in the affected areas,allocating affected areas to these centers,and routing to transport their required good is considered.health centers can be settled in one of the affected areas or in a place out of them;therefore,the proposed model offers the best relief operation policy when it is possible to supply the goods of affected areas (which are customers of goods) directly or under coverage.due to that the problem is np-hard,to solve the problem in large-scale,a meta-heuristic algorithm based on harmony search algorithm is presented and its performance has been compared with basic harmony search algorithm and neighborhood search algorithm in small and large scale test problems.the results show that the proposed harmony search algorithm has a suitable efficiency.© 2017,the authors.
background: micrornas have recently been introduced as epigenetic regulators of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways,which are impaired in obesity and diabetes.objectives: we evaluated the effects of calorie-restricted diet therapy on the circulating levels of mir-33b and mir-29a in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm).methods: this randomized clinical controlled trial was performed on 30 eligible obese women with t2dm,randomly divided into two groups (control group,n = 15;diet therapy group,n = 15) for 10 weeks.ten healthy women with normal weight were enrolled at the baseline of the study as controls.demographic information,dietary intake,and anthropometric and biochemical indices were obtained before and after the study.circulating mir-33b and mir-29a were assessed for all subjects using quantitative rt-pcr,and the fold change of each circulating mirna was compared between groups.results: the circulating levels of mir-29a and mir-33b in the diabetic women were higher (0.40-fold) and lower (1.43-fold),respectively,than normal levels.diet therapy significantly increased the circulating level of mir-33b (p = 0.023,0.97-fold upregulation) to normal levels.this increase was independently correlated with caloric restriction (95%ci:-0.004 to-0.0001,p = 0.022) and 2hppbs (95%ci:-0.009 to-0.001,p = 0.035).no remarkable change was observed in circulating levels of mir-29a.conclusions: our findings introduced a novel therapeutic effect of diet therapy on circulating mirnas in obese patients with t2dm.mir-33b is an important therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of t2dm and its complications.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.
chemical substances have an important threat due to extensive use in medicine,agriculture,industry and environment.in this retrospective study,etiological and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a hospital in iran were investigated.we compared these data with those reported from other parts of the country and the international experiences to evaluate any difference if exists.7 052 poisoned cases admitted to the hospital from april 2006 to march 2013,by data collected from the medical record in poison center section.according to our results there is a predominance of male patients and the majority of the poisoned patients were between 20-30 years old.drug poisoning was the most common cause of poisonings.the most frequently involved drugs were benzodiazepines and antidepressants.the seasonal distribution of our study showed a peak in summer.to prevent acute poisonings,the social education about the risk assessment of central nervous system-acting drugs and reduction of the exposure period of people to pesticides are recommended.this study suggested a proper educational program for the public and primary care units.our results provide useful information for preventive strategies.© georg thieme verlag kg stuttgart · new york.
context: sand fly fever is a vector-borne viral infection and is endemic in many parts of the world,particularly in areas that are infected with different types of leishmaniasis.clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to very high fever and photophobia in patients.during the last decades,an increase in imported sand fly fever cases in developed and nonendemic countries have been pointed out from an international literature review.among the possible causes are increasing international travelers,travel of immigrants from endemic area,and army operations.it has been noted that the main region for the diseases are west of asia and east of europe,and perhaps imported cases may be seen clinically in different parts of the world,either in developed or in developing countries.materials and methods: two methods were used to gather the information for this article.first,pubmed was searched for english language references to published relevant articles.second,the term sand fly fever was searched on google scholar too.results: in pubmed,156 articles and in google scholar,70,400 articles mentioned the term sand fly fever.the most searched items in pubmed were epidemiology,treatment,prevention,and life cycle with incidences of 41.66,20.51,13.46,and 1.92%,respectively,and in terms of geographical distribution of the study,the maximum number of articles in pubmed were published from europe,asia,australia,and america,with percentages being 26.92,17.30,17.0,1.28,and 1.28%,respectively.conclusion: different countries have reported the disease either as an endemic or as an imported one.co-infection.sand fly fever must be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a similar clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area,which are mentioned above.adventure travelers,researchers,military personnel,and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas;these travelers should receive counseling regarding sand fly fever appropriate protective health measures.in this review article sand fly fever situation will be studied.© 2017 annals of tropical medicine and public health | published by wolters kluwer-medknow.