background and aims: metro driving is one of the newest jobs in iran.for scarcity of studies on the tasks and hazards of metro drivers,we performed a task and hazard analysis of metro drivers to recommend control measures.methods: this qualitative study was conducted in metro organization in tehran during 2012-2013.in this mixed method study,data was collected through field observations,document reviews,individual interviews,focus group interviews and focus group discussions.many models and techniques include task analysis,organizational accident model,energy model,human factor analysis and classification,failure mode and effect analysis,fault tree analysis,event tree analysis,management oversight and risk tree,risk priority number,and lower and upper control levels were used to data analysis.results: metro driving has many tasks and hazards.most hazards were under upper control level while automatic train protection (atp) was active.in contrast,when atp was inactive,most hazards were over upper control level.conclusion: commitment to customer over commitment to safety was root cause of all of systematic failures and hazards in metro driving job and operation.establishment of permitto-work system can control many of hazards while atp is inactive.
background: sufficient evidence is lacking about patient safety culture in iran.it is only by focusing on the culture of safety within healthcare and treatment institutes that improvements may be made in patient care services.objectives: the present study aimed to examine patient safety culture and factors that affect that culture in two hospitals in tehran city.patients and methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in two government teaching hospitals (135-and 650-bed hospitals) in tehran city in february of 2013 using a proportional stratified sampling method.the participants completed questionnaires with questions concerning their demographics and patient safety culture.results: overall,the study participants rated patient safety culture within their healthcare institutions at 64.7%.the highest and lowest patient safety culture subscales were 73.8% and 50.1% for “teamwork within units” and “staffing,” respectively.according to the findings,hospital size (p < 0.001) and hospital area (p < 0.001) had a significant relationship with patient safety culture.conclusions: given that “staffing” was the lowest rated element in patient safety culture,improving this element could help to increase patient safety culture in hospitals in tehran.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.
background: many people are concerned with the problems and side effects caused by increased levels of fast food (ff) consumption,especially among adolescents.several studies have assessed the problems of ff consumption particularly weight gain and obesity.however,few address the methods,strategies,and policies needed to reduce this issue.objectives: this study aims to explore parent and stakeholder views and perspectives on the means to reduce adolescent ff consumption.patients and methods: the present paper is based on original research conducted from june to december 2012.in this study,19 participants were selected using purposive sampling.their experiences and perspectives were explored using in-depth semi structured interviews;a thematic content analysis with a conventional approach was conducted to analyze the data.using this approach,the transcripts were coded openly,and subcategories and categories were chosen based on similarities.subsequently,themes were defined at a more abstract level.results: three main themes were identified as approaches and strategies suggested by parents and stakeholders to reduce ff consumption.these included culture building,supporting healthy eating styles,and controlling and supervising healthy eating styles.conclusions: based on the extracted themes,some interventions can be suggested to reduce ff consumption among young people.a holistic approach that incorporates a change of culture,social support,and supervision is promising.further quantitative studies are also recommended.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.
this paper examines how and to what extent national-level red cross and red crescent organisations (i.e.national societies) use the social media platform twitter.specifically,we assess (a) adoption rates and influential factors;(b) message types and frequency;and (c) the ability to reach large audiences.findings demonstrate that while the digital divide (i.e.the disparity between country-level internet access rates) limits adoption,key exceptions signal the potential for further diffusion.this paper also illustrates disparate message types,points out the limits of organisational reach,and presents evidence-based suggestions to improve message amplification.copyright © 2017 inderscience enterprises ltd.
objectives we sought to assess the feasibility and safety of same-day discharge (sdd) after complex percutaneous coronary intervention (pci) using a forearm approach.background sdd has been shown to be safe after elective,low-risk pci.however,the feasibility and safety of sdd in more complex patients and lesions has received limited study.methods we retrospectively reviewed 1190 elective pcis that were performed between january 2013 and december 2015 at the red cross general hospital.results of the 1190 pcis,166 (13.9%) were complex (bifurcations,vein and arterial grafts,unprotected left main,last remaining vessel,chronic total occlusions,or with utilization of rotational atherectomy or hemodynamic support).as compared with non-complex cases,complex cases were associated with older age,male gender,higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery,lower prevalence of smoking,higher utilization of femoral access and 7f guiding catheters,higher contrast utilization and fluoroscopy dose,longer fluoroscopy time,more stents per lesion,more frequent single vessel treatment and non-complete revascularization,and treatment with ticagrelor and bivalirudin.among the patients who underwent complex pci (n = 166),twenty eight (16.9%) were discharged the same day.sdd after complex pci was associated with younger age and more frequent use of forearm access.the 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events after complex pci was 0% vs 3.6% (p = 0.59) in patients with sdd vs.overnight hospitalization.conclusions sdd is feasible and safe in selected patients undergoing elective complex pci using the forearm approach.© 2017 elsevier inc.