background: this study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country.methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces,using a stratified cluster random sampling method.the study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day.the data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (cronbach's alpha;79.73%.).results: the majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes.of 160 marketed brands,38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign,including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands.being tempted (25.0%),getting nervous (24.1%),and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation.the majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places.conclusion: smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group.raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption,particularly among first starters and youth.however,increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.© 2017,academy of medical sciences of i.r.iran.all rights reserved.
background: causes of death statistics provide crucial health intelligence in national and international communities.an efficient death registration system provides reliable information for health policy system.in many developing countries,death registration systems face a degree of misclassification and incompleteness.there are many impediments to putting an estimate of cause-specific death rates.addressing those challenges could prevent misleading results.methods: our data was collected by ministry of health and medical education,tehran and isfahan cemeteries from 1995 to 2010.after converting icd codes of iran’s death registration into gbd codes,170 underlying causes of deaths were recognized in the available data.a wide range of methods were applied for preparing the data.we used several statistical models to estimate mortality rates in age-sex-province groups for all causes of deaths.the considerable number of combinations for age,sex,cause of death,year,and province variables made further complicated model selection and evaluation of the results.results: totally,58.91% of deaths were related to males.the majority of cases of death were classified as ncds (77.83%) and injuries (14.80%).we extrapolated 71.76% and 14.71% of causes of death by mixed effect model,spline model with parameter 0.9 and 0.6,respectively.conclusion: a comprehensive and unique registration system is able to solve many drs issues.it is necessary to assess the quality and validity of cause of death data.scientific methods like analyzing mortality level and cause-of-death data are used to provide an overview for better decisions.© 2017,academy of medical sciences of i.r.iran.all rights reserved.
background: surgery as a stressful experience can affect the child and quality of care plan.nurses can use non-pharmacological intervention to reduce anxiety and help children cope with this stress.objectives: this study was designed to compare the effects of dramatic puppet and therapeutic play on anxiety of children undergoing surgery.methods: in this randomized clinical trial,75 children were divided into three groups (dramatic puppet,therapeutic play,and control) using a simple random allocation method.the study was conducted in iran in 2013-2014.the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale (rcmas) was used to determine the anxiety of children.the data were analyzed using paired t-test,one-way analysis of variance (anova),and tukey test.results: the findings revealed that the changes of anxiety scores after the intervention were significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.001),so that the anxiety scores decreased in both the intervention groups (puppet and play) and increased in the control group.conclusions: therapeutic play and dramatic puppet can be used by nurses as a care strategy and effective preoperative preparation intervention to reduce anxiety in children undergoing surgery.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.
background: handwriting difficulties are one of the most common reasons for referral to school-based occupational therapy.assessing handwriting performance using standardized tools is necessary for scientific research and clinical assessment.objectives: the objective of this study was to develop and validate the persian handwriting assessment tool to evaluate legibility and speed in near-point copying and dictation domains in primary school-aged children.methods: this methodological study was conducted in tehran,iran during 2015-2016.measurement items were selected by reviewing the past literature and considering the opinions of an expert panel.the scale development,the analysis of content validity,and item analysis were performed in phase one using the data from 131 students in grades two and three.exploratory factor analysis and discriminant validity were analyzed in phase two using the data from 208 subjects.sampling was conducted using the random cluster method.confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on a randomly split sample of half of the data.results: the content validity ratio of most of the criteria was greater than 0.57.item analysis confirmed the writing assignments in the copying and dictation domains.principal component analysis revealed that measurements in the copying and dictation domains loaded into three components separately,which accounted for 71.96% of the variance in the copying domain and 70.46% of the variance in the dictation domain.confirmatory factor analysis also confirmed the accuracy of the three-dimensional structure designated through exploratory factor analysis.discriminant validity showed that handwriting speed and legibility increased with maturation.conclusions: the persian handwriting assessment tool as a comprehensive and quickly scored tool that can help therapists identify primary school students with handwriting problems so that appropriate interventions for these students can be implemented.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.
background: sleep-deprivation in children decreases the quality of life and endangers health.increasing mother’s level of awareness can help improve the children’s sleep schedule and avoid many associated problems.objectives: this study aimed to investigate the effect of sms-based education on the level of sleep knowledge in mothers with 7-12 years old children.methods: in this single-blind randomized controlled trial,13 governmental primary schools in tabriz (iran) in 2016 (7 girls’ schools and 6 boys’ schools) were randomly selected among the primary schools,using cluster sampling approach.then,the mothers of sleep-deprived students were randomly divided into intervention and control groups by using ras.both of the groups took a pretest on sleep knowledge by pski and then,mothers in the intervention group received education through sending sms.finally,all of the participants took again the posttest in two time intervals including a week and three months after the intervention.a number of 92 mothers (experiment = 47,control = 45) completed all of the three phases of the research and the data were analyzed using spss ver13.results: the results showed that the difference between the scores obtained in the first and the second measurements of sleep knowledge in the experimental group was significantly different from that of the control group [mean between-group difference of 5.98 within 95% ci of 3.56 to 8.41 (p < 0.001)].the difference of sleep knowledge scores between the third and first measurements in the experimental group was also significantly different from that of the control group [mean between-group difference of 4.09 within 95% ci of 1.44 to 6.74 (p < 0.003)].conclusions: the use of sms-based education is a constant and efficient educational approach for increasing mothers’ level of knowledge about children’s sleep health.© 2016,iranian red crescent medical journal.