Cold agglutinin disease;a laboratory challenge

Introduction: Autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a complex process characterized by an immune reaction against red blood cell self-antigens.The analysis of specimens,drawn from patients with cold auto-immune hemolytic anemia is a difficult problem for automated hematology analyzer.This paper was written to alert technologists and pathologists to the presence of cold agglutinins and its effect on laboratory tests.Case Presentation: A 72-year-old female presented to the Shafa laboratory for hematology profile evaluation.CBC indices showed invalid findings with the Sysmex automated hematology analyzer.Checking the laboratory process showed precipitation residue sticking to the sides of the tube.After warming the tubes,results become valid and the problem attributed to cold agglutinin disease.In this situation,aggregation of RBCs,which occurs at t < 30°C,causes invalid findings meanwhile working with automated hematology analyzer.Conclusions: Knowledge of this phenomenon can help prevent wasting too much time and make an early and accurate diagnosis.© 2015,Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.

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